A Truthtelling Manual and the Art of Worldly Wisdom
being a collection of the aphorisms which appear in the works of BALTASAR GRACIAN of the Company of Jesus, and Reader in Holy Scripture in the College of Tarragona immediately translated for the understanding from a 1653 Spanish text by
doctor, and professor emeritus in the University of Cincinnati
a second and revised version
Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Illinois
"for a reader is in no
danger where the man
of discernment has
discovered a safe port. So
it seems to me."
from the seal of approval of Father Alonso Munoz of Otalora of the Lesser Clergy, censor of the Supreme Tribunal of the Inquisition,
To the Reader
To the just no laws, to the wise no counsel, yet none has known so much that it sufficed him. You need both to thank and to forgive me - that I entitle this epitome of life's rules an Oracle, for such it is in its judgments, and in its conciseness. There is here offered you in one happy volume all the twelve of Gracian, each so cherished that his MAN OP DISCERNMENT had hardly appeared in Spain, before it was issued in France, translated into her tongue, and printed at her court. May this volume serve as the menu card of reason at the feast of the intellectuals, and thus as a register of the choice morsels being served in all the other works, to the end that their genial wisdom may be enjoyed more widely.
D VINCENCIO IUAN DE LASTANOSA
Gracian wings across some fifty odd years of history like the flight of a Mother Carey's chicken. Out of a gray obscurity, he flashes into the visible sky--black, swift, unafraid, screaming his song. An international book of knowledge has it that he appeared "toward the end of the 16th century"- painful German research debates 1601; the Spaniards themselves, sure of what is of no importance anyways dogmatize on 1604. None seems to know the month of his birth or the day, January eighth being a moment derived by calcalation.
Calatayed is given as his birthplace, though Belmonte, a village near there, has become oficial. At eighteen Gracian became a member of the Society of Jesus and from that time on he was what we might call today, a university man. The humanities, scripture, theology and philosophy are mentioned as the subjects of his teaching, and, for most of his life, the Jesuit College in Tarragona was the place of his labors. How well he knew his subjects may be deduced from his writings. A goodly number of them must have adapted themselves to the times, his Government, his Order and the Church, for they brought him no trouble, no distinction and are forgotten. Those that plagued him were some seven volumes which in the main were salvaged, edited and published by his friend Don Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa "without the permission of Gracian but not without his consent" as the commentators hque it. Their titles are EL HEROE (THE MAN OF DISTINCTION), EL POLITICO DON PERNANDO EL CATOLICO (THE POLITTC FERNANDO), AGUDEZA Y ARTE DE INGENIO (WIT AND WAY), EL DISCRETO (THE MAN OF DISCERNMENT), and EL CRITICON (THE MONITOR). The first of these is said to have appeared in 1630, certainly not later than 1637. Gracian was then in his twenties or still early thirties. The rest filed up a succeeding score of years, THE MONITOR weaving through Gracian's last ten. This three-volume work (which might better perhaps be entitled THE CENSOR or A WOULD-BE CRITIC) is easily likened to Bunyan's PILGRIM'S PROGRESS which it antedates some thirty or forty years. Its frst part (1650) is for "the spring of childhood and the summer of youth," and the second (1653) for "the autumn of adult manhood." The appearance of the latter is emphasized because it birthed Gracian's earthly dificulties. On its account he was warned not to write further. A third part, nevertheless, made the light of day in the same year "for the winter of old age." But vejez connotes also senility, peevishness and decay. At any rate, Mother Carey's chicken - never known to fly inland - through wind and circumstance was driven there. He failed to continue as rector of his Jesuit College, the chair of Scripture was taken from him, and he was ordered into the provinces. The Provost General wrote to the Provincial in Aragon: "Watch him, keep him in sight, at unexpected moments look into his cell and his papers and allow him nothing under lock and key therein." While in this state he died (December sixth, 1658) in the village of Tarazona in the province of Zaragoza, far from the place of his birth and still farther removed from the province of Tarragona and the place of his life's labor.
THE MONITOR is an allegory in which Critico and Andrenio wander over the earth in search of happiness. Up the hill of life, torn by conflicting desires, they encounter falsehood and justice, the vulgar and the princely, are enchanted by sham, get into France by use of a golden club, engage in discourse with all the philosophers of the world. seek virtue, encounter envy and, toward the end, disease and death. They discover immortality, but as to the rest, including happiness, the reader is left in doubt unless he, too, is willing to travel the road of virtue and of courage.
It is easy to smagine that Gracian was simply too sharp for his time, or for succeeding times, as Aristophanes or Doctor Swift or Voltaire, and in the same fashion. A thinkers a wit, a pen like a rapier-and the combination could not mean less than a world in arms against it. The Provincial and the General of the Order were, after all, only Gracian's employers and did they not, as school superintendents, or holier men, have to meet a protesting public? Just what should a good Christian do about a brother who in the same breath advises youth to devote its study to Plato and the Scriptures, and who makes Latin philosophers and saints to wander in the same garden? What can be the vote of a surging democracy which an adversary pictures as bulls, wolves, foxes and serpents? What must the politician think of Fortune whose arms are not her own but those of the Church and the State? What have the censors of books to say when themselves brought 'upon the carpet; and what becomes of Christian doctrine when great men-and by indirection no others-are alone found to be immortal?
The ORACULO MANUAL Y ARTE DE PRUDENCIA that is here translated is not designated as the eighth of Gracian's volumes because it was created out of the rest. More, however, appears in the ORACULO than can be traced back to the enumerated works of the master. New paragraphs and new ideas evolve. Credit for them must perhaps be given to Lastanosa who, while again appearing as Gracian's publisher, may well have been in this volume as in the earlier, much of a Boswell also. His address to the reader seems to prove this, for its brevity, its form and its total spirit are either tinctured by Gracian- or else much of Gracian must have been tinctured by him. In this paragraph Lastanosa counts the works of his friend as twelve; what became of the missing five is lost in the clouds of history. If, perchance, they existed as manuscripts, nothing is left of them now, for not even their titles, except in two instances, have come down to us.
There is another volume by Gracian -his last (1655), and written apparently in the dark year preceding his banishment into the provinces-- which in content bears no relation to the already cited texts. It is his EL COMULGADOR (THE COMMUNION RAIL), a collection of "divers meditations for those about to take Holy Communion, to enable them to prepare themselves to receive it and to obtain grace." It is from the pen of the Father Baltasar Gracian while all the rest are credited to one Lorengo Gracian, for whom there is no birth record. Baltasar is, therefore, the true praenomen of our Gracian, the other being a cloak. The key to the mystery is contained in the dedicatory and in- troductory notes to the Meditations. The volume is inscribed to Elvira Ponce de Leon, the Marquesa de Valdueza, to whom the author refers for her previous interest in his EL HEROE, his EL DISCRETO and the ORACULO; while in the note to the reader appear these significant words: "Of the various books of which I have been made the father, this alone do I recognize as mine and call legitimate, issuing this time from my heart more than from my mind."
The estimates of Gracian as man or philosopher or writer run from the extremes of praise to the extremes of condemnation. His prose is the worst or the best in Spanish; his philosophy is commonplace or the renascence of pessimism; he was a shallow man of his times or an earnest student of the ways of getting heaven tied to earth. Himself, he praises the golden mean and that perhaps best characterizes him. The ORACULO is not food for babes and perhaps not philosophy for sages. But it is good spice- even though coca leaves may not be eaten for lettuce nor spirit be drunk raw.
Of the complete "works" of Gracian that have come down to us, the ORACULO MANUAL Y ARTE DE PRUDENCIA is that collection of three hundred paragraphs excerpted therefrom which his friend and editor Don Vincencio Juan de Lastanosa published for him. Issued late in the life of Gracian they represent the very heart of the man and, polished as they must have been by time and labor, the jewels of his soul. The ORACULO has been translated so often and into so many different languages that its reissue in English might seem to demand apology. And yet this is hardly so, for, frankly stated, all the translations (with the exception of Schopenhauer's into German) are so far removed from the Spanish original that simple justice to a man who was, would prove excuse enough for any new trial. Almost every translation of Gracian is but a translation from another translation - a matter carried to such ridiculous lengths that one of the German texts is translated from the Italian, itself translated from a French text which, corrupted in the extreme, derives from the Spanish; or else the translation comes out so distorted through the omissions, the emendations or the freightings of theological and scholastic bias that every semblance to the original picture is lost.
The pages that follow are a straight- forward attempt to express in English the thoughts of the ORACULO, la the original, its three hundred paragraphs are not numbered, not emphasized in their frst phrases and carry no notes. Numbers and italics appear in the first (French) translations and have been carried over into nearly all the rest. Only the numbers are continued in this. The notes appear early in the body of the translated texts or as ever-growing appendices to every page. They do nothing but mar the sequence of Gracian's own mental flow. They have, therefore, been omitted, thus to make it easier for the reader to discover for himself what was the merit of Gracian. The punctuation follows the original which though differing from that of the modern grammarian is perfectly clear. I have made every efort to hold to the word, to that style of Gracian which made famous a whole epoch of Spanish literature, and to the spirit of this thinker, thus attempting that impossible of the French wit who believes that translations are, like women, if true, rarely beautiful, and if beautiful, rarely true.
The apostrophes of Gracian are clipped, almost stenographic. They will not as such make appeal to a swift-reading public. But even by the slower-minded, the volume though small, cannot be read through at a sitting. And his words are barbed -- at once to goad or to punish.
ORACVLO MANVAL, Y ARTE DE PRVDENCIA,
SACADA DE LOS AFOrismos que se discurren en las obras de Lorengo Gracian.
PVBLICALA DON VIcencion Iuan de Lastanosa.
Y la dedica.
AL EXCELENTISSIMO Seiior Don Luis Mender de Haro.
Con licencia, en Madrid, por Maria de Quinones, ano de 1653.
This title is reproduced as the frontispiece, and facing pages from the body of the text are shown opposite. The volume constitutes, according to Eduard Grisebach, (Eduard Grisebach: Schopenhauer's Handschrytlicher Nachlass1, 3ter Abdruck, Let)zig, Verlag von Philty Reclam jun. (after) 1895.) the FIRST edition of the Master's work even though mine carries an inked-in note (dated 1870) stating it to be the SECOND edition of Gracian's classic. The British Museum records, as in its fles, another copy of the ORACULO identical in title-page, format, paging, etc. with that here described, also printed by Quinones in Madrid. Mr. K Thomas, Deputy Keeper in the Department of Printed Books of the British Museum, has written me that it possesses a further copy apparently identical with the Quinones edition, of the same date, etc., but carrying in addition:
Vendese en casa de Francisco Lamberto, en la Carrera de San Geronimo.
In comparing the two British copies he ventures to suggest (very modestly but with unquestioned authority, I would say) that the latter volume is the frst of the 1653 prints and that the former, and mine, are copies printed in the provinces or actually pirated. While all three are dated 1653 and while, in the body of the text, all three seem identical, the name FRANCISCO ESPADANA in the Quinones edition not bearing Lamberto's imprint, is twice spelled ESPANA in the Licencia. The opinion of Mr. Thomas seems justryied, therefore, that the Lamberto imprint is the original of the 1653 editions.
In the application for license to print, reference is made to a previous appearance of the ORACULO, on which grounds the bibliographic authorities (Latassa, (Felix de Latassa: Bibliotecas de Latassa por Don Miguel Gomez Uriel, Zaragoza, 1884) or example) declare the 1653 prints, second editions. There exists, however, no copy of an earlier printing to prove the point, and as much of the matter in the ORACULO, as indicated by the title page and the introduction by Lastanosa, was "collected" from the "twelve" books of Gracian, the existence of an edition dated 1647 is hardly proved. In this year Gracian had written only four of his total series, and the frst of the three volumes that constitute his EL CRITICON did not appear until 1650, nor the last two, until 1653. But whether a first or a second edition, the 1653 printing is the best assurance that we have left of possible personal editorship, for Gracian did not die until five years later.
EL HUROE. Madrid, 1630. (?)
Another and better authenticated edition is marked, Huesca, por Juan Nogues, 1637. Reprints appear as Madrid, 1639; Barcelona, 1640. A French translation by Gervais is dated Paris, 1645; and an English, by Sir J. Skeffington, London, 1652.
EL POLITICO DON PERNANDO EL CATOLICO.
Reprinted, Zaragoza, 1641; Huesca, 1646.
AGUDEZA Y ARTE DE INGENIO.
Madrid, 1642. (?)
Reprinted, Huesca, 1648, 1649.
Huesca, por juan Nogue's, 1645.
Reprinted, Barcelona, 1647.
ORACULO MANUAL Y ARTE DE PRUDENCIA.
Huesca, por Juan Nogues, 1647. (?)
*Reprinted, Madrid, 1653.
Primera Parte. Madrid, 1650.
Segunda Parte. Huesca, 1653.
Tercera Parte. Huesca, 1653.
Reprinted, Madrid, 1658.
Zaragoza, por Juan de Ibar, 1655.
Reprinted, Madrid, 1655.
Two volumes of poetry commonly ascribed to Gracian but not published in collected form until after his death are the following:
(a section of the Obras)
Madrid, por Pablo de Val, 1664.
SELVAS DE TODO EL ANO.
(a section of the Obras)
Barcelona, por Josef Gailart, 1734.
The date of first appearance in printed form of practically every work of Gracian is a matter of debate. With one or two exceptions, all are hidden or lost and the fact of their former existence, therefore, depend upon deductions made from stray remarks occurring in the later writings of Gracian or biographic notes of the period which concern his life. Those which the modern reader may be surest of, are, therefore, the allegedly later reprints of his works that still antedate his death, or those collections of his total contributions which appeared immediately thereafter. The bibliographic list that follows is synthesized from Latassa, Grisebach and Jacobs.(Joseph Jacobs: Gracian's, The Art of Worldly Wisdom, London, Macmillan and Co., 1892.) After the complete OBRAS, the literary history of the ORACULO only is sketched and its various translations. As the accuracy of these citations even, is often open to question, a star has been placed before those that have been versfed directly (from the volumes now in the Library of Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio).
*ORACULO MANVAL, Y ARTE DE PRUDENCIA. Madrid, por Maria de Quinones, 1653.
*ORACULO MANVAL, Y ARTE DE PRUDENCIA. Amsterdam, en casa de Iran Blaev, 1659.
This is the first recorded reprint to be published immediately after Gracian's death. It is the text used by Schopenhauer for his famous translation and contains in addition, El Heroe (newly corrected) and El Politico D. Fernando (a reprint of the Nogues, Huesca, 1646 text).
*OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Dos Tomos. Madrid, porPablode Val, 1664. The Oraculo appears in the frst volume.
OBRAS DE GRACIAN.Dos Tomos. Barcelona, por Pablo de Val, 1667.
OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Amberes, 1669.
*. OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Dos Tomos.
Madrid, Imprenta Real de
la Santa Creada, 1674.
The Oraculo appears between pages 449-513 of the frst volume.
OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Barcelona, 1700.
*. OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Dos Tomos.
Amberes, por Henrico y
Cornelio Verdussen, 1702.
The Oraculo occupies pages 241-296 in the second volume.
OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Madrid, 1720.
OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Amberes, por Juan Bautista Verdussen, 1725.
OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Barcelona, por Josef Gailart, 1734.
*. OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Dos Tomos.
Barcelona, for Pedro Escader
y Pablo Nadal, 1748.
Complete, carrying in addition the Seleas del Ano. The Oraculo appears on pages 441-506 of the frst volume.
OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Barcelona, Oficina de Maria Angela Marti y Gali, Vinda, 1757.
*. OBRAS DE GRACIAN. Dos Tomos.
Madrid, en la Imprenta de
Pedro Marin, 1773.
Complete, except for the Seleas. The Oraculo appears on pages 560-647 of the first volume.
Between the date of this volume and modern times the books of Gracian, either as collected works or separately cease to appear in Spanish. Within recent years the ORACULO has come out in the following forms:
Madrid, Compania Ibero-Americana
de Publicaciones (after?) 1900.
The reprint is of interest because published as the thirty-third volume of The Hundred Classics of Spanish Literature.
*TRATADOS DE GRACIAN. Madrid, Casa Editorial Calleja, 1918. A reprint of the Amsterdam, 1659 text of the Oraculo appears on pages 185-289.
Biblioteca de Autores espanoles,
Tomo LXV, Madrid, Libreria
de los Sucesores de Hernando,
The Oraculo is on pages 570-599.
*ORACULO MANUAL, Santiago de Chile, Ediciones Ercilla, 1940.
L'HOMME DE COUR. Par le Sieur Amelot de la Houssaie, Paris, 1685.
*.L'HOMME DE COUR. Quatrilme Ed Paris, Martin Jean Bondot et Etienne Martin, 1687.
*.L'HOMME DE COUR. Quatrie'me Ed Hiene, Andrie Frederic Botticher, 1692.
*.L'HOMME DE COUR. -Nouvelle Ed Lyon, Frangois Barbier, 1693.
*L'HOMME DE COUR. -Nouvelle Ed Lyon, Frangois Barbier, 1696.
*L'HOMME DE COUR. Quatrieme Ed. La Haye, Abraham Troyel, 1696.
*L'HOMME DE COUR. -Cinquieme Ed La Haye, Abraham Troyel, 1701.
*L'HOMME DE COUR. Septileme Ed. Rotterdam, Jean Hofhout, 1716.
*L'HOMME DE COUR. -Huitieme Ed. Rotterdam, Jean Hofhout, 1728.
*MAXIMES DE BALTAZAR GRACIEN.
Traduites de L'Espagnol, par le
Paris, Rollin fils, 1730.
A closer translation of the Oraculo into French than de la Houssaie's.
*L'HOMME DE COUR. Traduit et commente, par Amelot de la Houssaie. Paris, Liopold Collin, 1808.
*L'HOMME DE COUR. - Paris, L'Imprimeur Lion Pichon, 1924. *L'HOMME DE COUR. - Paris, Bernard Grasset, 1924.
De la Houssaie's translation of the ORACULO into French, while not the first of such translations into other European languages, is the most important because, with the exceptions noted, all subsequent translations of the ORACULO were derived, not from the original Spanish, but from de la Houssale's French version (and thus came to include, for the most part, all his notes, additions, textual distortions, philosophic disquisitions and scholastic heaviness) .
ORACOLO MANUALE, E ARTE DI PRUDENZA. Dedicato all' Leonardo Pesaro. Anonymous(?) Venetia, 1679.
ORACOLO MANUALE, E ARTE DI PRUDENZA. Venetia, 1690.
*L'HUOMO DI CORTE, O SIA L'ARTE DI PRUDENZA. From the French of de la Houssaie by Francesco Tosques. Two volumes in one. Venezia, Gabriel Herts 1703.
*L'HUOMO DI CORTE, O SIA L'ARTE DI PRUDENZA. -Two volumes. Venezia, Gabriel Hertz, 1708.
*L'HUOMO DI CORTE, O SIA L'ARTE DI PRUDENZA. -Two volumes in one. Venezia, Giacomo Hertz, 1734. two volumes in one.
L'HUOMO DI CORTE, O SIA L'ARTE DI PRUDENZA. Venezia, Giacomo Hertz, 1740.
RUSSIAN *THE COURTTER. From the French of de la Houssaie by Sergei Volchkof Second Edition. St. Petersburg, 1760.
*THE COURTIERS MANUAL ORACLE FOR THE ART OF PRUDENCE. (Lachlan's Note: The Courtier's Oracle: or, The Art of Prudence) Anonymous. London, printed by M. Flesher for Abel Swalle, 1685. London, 1694.
THE ART OF PRUDENCE; OR, A COMPANION FOR A MAN OF SENSE.
Made English and illustrated with
de la Houssale's notes by Mr. Savage
*THE ART OF PRUDENCE; OR, A COMPANION FOR A MAN OF SENSE.- second Edition, corrected. London, Jonah Bowyer, 1705.
THE ART OF PRUDENCE; OR, A COMPANION FOR A MAN OF SENSE. third Edition. London, 1714.
*THE ART OF WORLDLY WISDOM BY BALTHASAR GRACIAN.
Translated from the Spanish 1659
Amsterdam text by Joseph Jacobs.
Macmillan and Company,
London and New York, 1892.
THE ART OF WORLDLY WISDOM BY BALTHASAR GRACIAN. Reprinted. 1904.
THE ART OF WORLDLY WISDOM BY BALTHASAR GRACIAN. Reprinted. 1913.
Two (the earlier with a reprint) issued after 1731, and both apparently dependent upon de la Houssale's French verston are listed by Grisebach as in the Catalogue of Printed Books in the British Museum.
Two, issued after 1770, are listed by Grisebach as in the British Museum.
L'HOMME DE COUR ODER DER HEUTIGE
POLTITSCHE WELT-UND STAATSWEISE,
FORGESTELLET VON BALTHASAR
. . . in unsre hochtentsche Sprache
Nbersetzet, anitzo . . . rermehret . . .
von Job. Leonard Santer.
Franckfurth and Leipzig, 1687.
Cited by Grisebach as in the collection of the Royal Library in Berlin and as translated from the French.
HOMME DE COUR ODER:KLUGER HOF-UND WELTMANN, . . . nach Houssaie in's Teutsche ubersetzet von Selintes. Augspurg, 1711. According to Grisebach, the pen name of C. Weissbach.
ORACUL: D. I. REGELN DER KLUGHEIT.
Aus dem Spanischen von A. F. Miiller.
2 Bande. Leipzig, 1715-1717.
ORACUL: D. I. REGELN DER KLUGHEIT. Zweite Aufl. Leipzig, 1733.
*UOMO DI CORTE ODER KLUGER HOP-UND
Nach . . . Francisci Tosques seiner
Italianischen Version ins Teutsche
libersetzet . . . mit . . . Anmerkungen
von Christoph Heinrich Frelesleben
Altenburg, Johann Ludwig
Since Tosques' translation is from de la Houssaie, this German version is three times removed from the original Spanish.
DIE KUNST ZU LENEN. Vortrefliche Regeln etc. Anonymous. Leipzig, Weygand, 1786. According to Grisebach thss contains only two-thirds of the maxims of the original Ord culo and these its modernized German from Selintes' (Weissbach's) translation from the French.
DER MANN VON WELT . . . frei bearbeitetes vollstandig hinterlassenes Manuscript von K H. Heydenreich, herausgegeben von K. G. Schelle. Leipzig, Martini, 1803.
*TASCHENBUCH POR PREUNDE DER LEBENSKLUGHHIT, frei bearbeitet won Karl Heinrich Heydenreich, heransgegeben von K. G. Schelle. Reutlingen, J. J. Makensche Buchbandlung, 1806.
DAS SCHWARZE BUCH ODER LEHREN DER LEBENSWEISHEIT. Anonymous. 1826.
*MANNERSCHULE, Aus dem Spanischen Nbersetzt von Fr. KNile. Stuttgart, Verlag der J. B. Metzler'schen Buchbandlung, 1838. "Eine Pfuscherarbeit" in the opinion of Grise ba ch.
*HAND-ORAKEL UND KUNST DER WELTKLUGHEIT
, . . aus dem Spanischen Original
treu und sorgfaltig Nbersetzt von
Arthur Schopenhauer (Nachgelassenes Manuscript). Heransgegeben
von Julius FrauenstJdt.
Leipzig, F. A. Brockharis, 1862.
The frst printing of Schopenhauer's classic translation. Made in 1832, the original manuscript; in the hands of J. G. Keil sought a publisher for seven years, only to fail. Schopenbauer died in 1860. This is, therefore, the first of the posthumous printings of the Schopenhauer text. "Einen durchweg unzuverlassigen Abdruck der Handscrift" according to Grisebach.
*HAND-ORAKEL UND KUNST DER WELTKLUGHEIT - Herausgegeben von Edward
Grisebach. Legzig, Philipp Reclam
The authorized and authorkative text of the Schopenhauer translation. Zweiter Abdruck. 1895.
*HAND-ORAKEL UND KUNST DER WELTKLUGHEIT - Heransgegeben von Heinrich
Schmidt. Leipzig, Alfred Kroner
Verlag, (after?) 1900.
The Schopenhauer text compared with the original Spanish and corrected to suit the taste of some carping critics. A volume which deservedly is in its twenty-fifth thousand (1931).
[Lachlan's Note: Would some of the text in Joseph Jacobs' introduction to his 1892 translation (commenting on the Schopenhauer text), make him one of those "carping critics"?]
A translation by M. Smallegange is cited by Jacobs as published in The Hague in 1696.
A translation (from the original Spanish?) appearing in Cracow, 1802, by Count Sierakowski is cited by Jacobs.