Mammals - by size
- "Eastern Grey Squirrel (S. carolinensis), of which the "Black Squirrel" is a variant"
- "Black squirrels in Russia have been accused of pack behavior in the killing and consumption of a dog."
( "Russian squirrel pack 'kills dog'", BBC News (2005-12-01). Retrieved on 2008-07-07.)
- Russian squirrel pack 'kills dog':
- While squirrels without sources of protein might attack birds' nests, he said, the idea of them chewing a dog to death was "absurd".
- "If it really happened, things must be pretty bad in our forests," he added.
Fisher (a small version of a wolverine: known for sneaking around and eating domestic cats)
Wolf (wolves - alledgedly - tend to visit the Deep River area in winter from Quebec via the frozen Ottawa river)
- Wolf attacks on humans
- Under normal circumstances, wild wolves are generally timid around
humans. Wolves usually try to avoid contact with people, to the point of
even abandoning their kills when an approaching human is detected,
though there are several reported circumstances in which wolves have
been recorded to act aggressively toward humans.
(Deep River is generally too south to find wolverines but there have been claims of finding evidence of occassional wolverine in the area)
- The wolverine is, like most mustelids, remarkably strong for its
size. It has been known to kill prey as large as moose, although most
typically when these are weakened by winter or caught in snowbanks.
- Armed with powerful jaws and a thick hide, wolverines may defend
kills against larger or more numerous predators. There is at least
one published account of a 27-pound wolverine's attempt to steal a kill
from a much larger predator - namely, a black bear (adult males weigh 400
to 500 pounds). Unfortunately for the mustelid, the bear won what was
ultimately a fatal contest, crushing the wolverine's skull.
American Black Bear
- As noted in above entry on wolverines, it is not recommended to try and steal a black bear's kill.
- Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources: What to do if you encounter a (black) bear
- Know the language of black bears:
If you by chance encounter a black bear it may:
- Stand on its hind legs to get a better look at you
- Salivate excessively, exhale loudly, and make huffing, moaning, clacking and popping sounds with its mouth, teeth and jaws
- Lower its head with its ears drawn back while facing you
- Charge forward, and/or swat the ground with its paws. This is also known as a bluff charge
Generally, the noisier the bear is, the less dangerous it is provided you don't approach the bear. These are all warning signals bears give to let you know you are too close. When bears are caught off guard, they are stressed, and usually just want to flee.
What to do – Surprise and Close Encounters:
- Remain calm. Do not run. Stand still and talk to the bear in a calm voice
- Arm your pepper spray
- Do not try to get closer to the bear
- If the bear does not get closer to you, slowly back away, talking to the bear in a quiet, monotone voice. Do not scream, turn your back on the bear, run, kneel down or make direct eye contact
- Watch the bear and wait for it to leave
- If the bear does not leave or approaches you, yell and wave your arms to make yourself look bigger. Throw objects, blow a whistle or an air horn. The idea is to persuade the bear to leave
- If you are with others, stay together and act as a group. Make sure the bear has a clear escape route
- If the bear keeps advancing, and is getting close, stand your ground. Use your bear pepper spray (if the bear is within seven metres) or anything else you can find or use to threaten or distract the bear
- Do not run or climb a tree
Black bear attacks are extremely rare. A black bear may attack if:
- It perceives you to be a threat to it, its cubs or it may be defending food. This is a defensive bear that wants more space between you and it. Such attacks are exceedingly rare although a bear's aggressive display may seem to suggest otherwise
- It is a predatory bear. These bears are also very rare. Predatory attacks usually occur in rural or in remote areas. Predatory bears approach silently, and may continue to approach regardless of your attempts to deter them by yelling or throwing rocks
What to do if an encounter results in an attack:
- Use your pepper spray
- Fight back with everything you have
- Do not play dead except in the rare instance when you are sure a mother bear is attacking you in defense of cubs
- American Black Bear
- Attacks on humans
Like many animals, they seldom attack unless cornered, threatened, or
wounded. They are less likely to attack humans than grizzly bears and
typically flee for cover as soon as they identify a human visitor.
Deaths by black bear are most often predatory, while grizzlies
fatalities on humans, although extremely rare, are often defensive.
This makes feigning death when a black bear attacks ineffective.
Although 15 North Americans have been killed since the year 2000, it is
estimated that there have been only 56 documented killings of humans by
black bears in North America in the past 100 years.
- List of fatal bear attacks in North America by decade
- Moose-Vehicle Collision Information - New Brunswick Department of Transportation
- A moose is about the same size as a draft horse. It can weigh about
450 kg (1,000 lbs.) and stand two metres (6 1/2 feet tall). When struck by
a car, it often falls on the windshield and roof of the vehicle. As a
result, many of the people involved in these crashes are seriously
injured and some are killed. It is a serious problem.
- Safety Tips
Slow Down At NightSlow Down When Driving At Night. A moose's dark coat makes it hard to see. Unlike a deer, a moose's eyes don't reflect light. Slowing down will give you more time to respond to a moose on or near the highway.
Pay Attention To Warning Signs. They mark high-risk areas with a history of moose-vehicle collisions. They were placed along the highway for your protection.
Scan Both Sides Of The Road. The best way to avoid an accident is to
spot the moose well in advance. Ask your passenger to help you watch for
moose and other animals.
Use Extreme Caution Whenever You See A Moose. They are unpredictable.
The moose you see standing calmly at the edge of the road could bolt in
front of your vehicle at the last second.
Keep Your Windshield Clean.
Keep Your Headlights Adjusted. Use high beams whenever possible.
- Moose-Vehicle Awareness
- About 700 moose-vehicle collisions occur on the Province's highways every year. People have been killed in these accidents. More often they are injured, resulting in hospitalization, time off work, and loss of pay. Cost estimates for vehicle damage alone are more than $1 million annually.
Why do moose use roadways?
Roadways often run through areas of prime moose habitat. More importantly, roads tend to attract moose which come there to:
feed on the vegetation along the roadside;
gain relief from flies in the open windswept right-of-ways;
in winter, to travel roadways cleared of deep snow.
or simply to move from one part of the habitat to another
Can this be prevented?
As long as there are moose in Newfoundland, they will be found on the highway. Data show that even in areas with very low moose density, moose are still attracted to roadways and can pose a hazard to drivers.
Whistles, reflectors, and odour repellents to frighten big game from passing vehicles or keep them from roadsides have been tested in North America and Europe; so far none have proven to be effective or economically feasible.
Care and attention when driving remains your best defense against a moose-vehicle accident.
When do accidents occur?
While accidents are reported year round, more than 70% occur between May and October. The three most critical months are June, July, and August.
- The majority of accidents occur between dusk and dawn. This is the time when driver visibility is severely limited by darkness, and when moose are most active. Most accidents occur on clear nights. So to avoid an accident, when you drive, think Moose!
Where do accidents occur?
Most of the Provincial highway system runs through good moose habitat. Thus, a driver can expect to encounter moose while traveling on any section of the Trans Canada Highway (TCH) or on any secondary roads.
Many accidents occur on straight stretches of roadway.
More accidents occur on certain sections of roadway. These HIGH-RISK areas are marked with moose crossing warning signs as illustrated.
- How can I avoid an accident?
Slow down when driving at night. This will allow you more time to respond to a moose on or near the highway.
Pay attention to Warning Signs; they mark High-Risk areas. These signs were placed along the roadways for you! Slow down and watch for moose.
Scan both sides of the road ahead as far as possible, especially when you are in a posted High-Risk accident zone.
The best way to avoid an accident is to spot the moose well in advance. Drivers report that in most accidents they did not see the moose until immediately before impact.
Moose on the right side of the vehicle are avoided more often than those on the left because drivers concentrate more on the right. Therefore, it important to scan both sides of the road.
Use extreme caution whenever you see an animal. No matter what it appears to be doing or how far it is from the road, slow down.
Moose are unpredictable. The moose you see standing calmly at the edge of the road could bolt in front of your vehicle at the last moment.
Remember most accidents occur on clear nights and on straight road sections, maybe because drivers are more cautious on curves or in poor weather.
Keep your windshield and headlights clean.
Drive with your headlights on high beam unless approaching, or overtaking, other traffic.
Wear your seatbelts. Seatbelts save lives.