Trying to find history on Consciencious Objectors / Consciencious Objection
- WAR, KILLING and the MILITARY
- Plus History of Conscientious Objection
- "Conscientious Objection can be traced back many hundreds of years.
In A.D. 173, an official of the Roman Empire, referring to those who
refused to serve in the military, stated, “If all men were to do as you,
there would be nothing to prevent the emperor from being left in
utter solitude and desertion and the forces of the empire would fall
into the hands of the most lawless barbarians” (Catholics and
Conscientious Objection, James H. Forest, 1981)."
- BANNED BOOKS/CENSORSHIP NEWS: Books Banned Or Challenged In Wisconsin
- "Words of Conscience: Religious Statements of Consciencious Objectors
(Shawn Perry) and A Handbook for Consciencious Objectors (Robert A. Seeley)
Access restricted to both books in Coleman due to alleged political overtones."
- What is "Methodism?"
- The Moravian Church
- "The Moravians who escaped to Germany in 1722 established a village on the estate of Count Nicholas Zinzendorf. Zinzendorf became integral in
combining the Unitas Fratrum with the Pietist movement. It was at this time in 1727 the Moravian Church of today was founded as the Renewed Unitas
Fratrum. In 1735 shortly after relocating in Germany the Moravians began to settle in North America. The first settlers, led by Bishop August
Spengenberg traveled to Georgia.The following year 25 more Moravians traveled to Savannah on the sameship as John and Charles Wesley. This was
the beginning of a seriesof contacts with Moravians which John Wesley recorded as having a impact on his life (Schattschneider, 64).
The Moravians had two reasons for relocating; the first was to secure land for a settlement in the event that religious peresecutionshould drive them
from Europe. The second reason for settling in Georgia was to be establish a mission to Native Americans.
Early on the Moravians got caught in the middle of the war betweenthe British and the Spanish. Their consciencious objection made Georgia less than
the secure new home land they had sought. This resulted in another relocation for the Moravians to Pennsylvaniawhere they established the communities
of Nazareth and Bethlehem."
- "forcible enrollment of recruits for military duty. Before the establishment of conscription, many countries supplemented
their militia and mercenary troops by impressment. In England, impressment began as early as the Anglo-Saxon period and
was used extensively under Elizabeth I, Charles I, and Oliver Cromwell. „Press gangs” forcibly seized and
carried individuals into service; frequently subjects of foreign countries were taken. After 1800, England restricted
impressment mostly to naval service. The Napoleonic Wars increased English need for sea power and led to the
impressment of a large number of deserters, criminals, and British subjects who had become naturalized Americans. (Until
1850, England did not recognize the right of a man to renounce his nationality.) Frequent interception of American ships
(see Chesapeake) to impress American citizens was a major cause of the War of 1812. England generally abandoned such
forcible measures after 1835. In Prussia, impressment was introduced by Frederick William I after 1713, laying the
groundwork for Prussian military power in the 18th cent. It reached its height under Frederick II (Frederick the Great) who
made forced recruitment on foreign soil an integral part of the Prussian military system. Impressment was used in many
countries as a method of ridding society of undesirables. Persons of property, apprenticed youths, and other respectable
citizens were often exempted by law. The system fostered gross abuses and was often a means of private vengeance. It
filled the army and navy with a group ready for mutiny, desertion, or other disloyalty, and it adversely affected voluntary
recruitment. After 1800 impressment tended to become a means of enforcing conscription, and it fell into disuse after 1850.
See J. R. Hutchinson, The Press-Gang Afloat and Ashore (1914); J. F. Zimmerman, Impressment of American Seamen (1926,
- Science and Ethics By Bertrand Russell - From Religion and Science (Oxford University Press, 1961)
- "As to the different deliverances of conscience: George III's conscience told him that he must not grant Catholic Emancipation, as, if he did, he would
have committed perjury in taking the Coronation Oath, but later monarchs have had no such scruples. Conscience leads some to condemn the
spoliation of the rich by the poor, as advocated by communists; and others to condemn exploitation of the poor by the rich, as practised by capitalists.
It tells one man that he ought to defend his country in case of invasion, while it tells another that all participation in warfare is wicked. During the War,
the authorities, few of whom had studied ethics, found conscience very puzzling, and were led to some curious decisions, such as that a man might have
conscientious scruples against fighting himself, but not against working on the fields so as to make possible the conscription of another man. They held
also that, while conscience might disapprove of all war, it could not, failing that extreme position, disapprove of the war then in progress. Those who,
for whatever reason, thought it wrong to fight, were compelled to state their position in terms of this somewhat primitive and unscientific conception of
- USA Conscientious Objection is NOT an Easy or a Quick Way
Out of the Military - Conscientious Objectors - Peace-by-Peace - Step-by-Step
Know Army Regulation 600-43
- USA Conscientious Objection - Request Classification as a Conscientious Objector -
Know Army Regulation 600-43
- USA Conscientious Objection - The Worst--Waiting for a Decision -
Know Army Regulation 600-43
- USA Conscientious Objection - Conscientious Objector Application -
Know Army Regulation 600-43
- Called into the office to be interrogated by my platoon leader and
platoon sergeant. Questioned about why I hadn't come to them first and
what exactly was the nature of my beliefs that I would want to be
discharged from the military. Told them that I had recently "converted"
to atheism and my beliefs were not religious but moral and ethical.
Specifically, I objected to the enforcement of laws, immigration control
and drug interdiction, which were in my opinion immoral and unethical. I
could not enforce those laws personally and I refused to give aid and
support to anyone who did enforce those laws. My platoon sergeant, a
"born again" Christian patriot, considered this subversive and said that
if it were up to him, I would go to Leavenworth for treason, but that it
was out of his hands at this point.
From the Oxford Dictionary
conscientious objector: one who refuses to conform to the requirements of a public enactment on the plea of
conscientious scruple; esp. such an objector to military service (cf. CONCHY)
1899 [see OBJECTOR]. 1910 Blackw. Mag. Mar. 424/1 Having quite properly insisted that vaccination should be universal and
compulsory, it presently admits ‘the conscientious objector’. 1916 A. HUXLEY Let. 2 Mar. (1969) 92 Conscientious objectors were not
so disgustingly hectored as they seem to have been in London. 1940 Economist 2 Mar. 371/1 The Act lays down that one who claims
that he conscientiously objects to being registered in the military service register, or to performing military service, or to performing
combatant duties, may apply to be registered as a conscientious objector and therefore to be exempt from military service. 1966 C. M.
BOWRA Memories 1898-1939 xiv. 352 Knowing how cruelly conscientious objectors had been treated in the First World War, I was
determined to see that their cases were put intelligibly before the tribunals.
objector: One who objects or makes an objection; one who brings forward a reason or argument against something, or
expresses disapproval of or disagreement with it.
1640 BP. HALL Episc. II. vi. 119 Let me put the Objector in minde that [etc.]. 1645 MILTON Tetrach. Wks. 1738 l. 235 (Deut. xxiv.
1) If these objecters might be the judges of human frailty. 1654 WHITLOCK Zootomia 496, I..feare not the half-witted Objectours that I
may meet with. 1722 WOLLASTON Relig. Nat. iv. 62 Another question, supposed..to be proposed by an objector. 1861 [see OBJECTEE].
1883 FROUDE Short Stud. IV. II. iv. 215 Expressions..qualified to satisfy objectors. 1899 Whitaker's Alm. 400/1 A conscientious
objector to vaccination can..escape all penalties.
conchy: Abbrev. of ‘conscientious objector’ (viz. to military service): see CONSCIENTIOUS a., 1b
1917 Daily Mail 9 Oct. 2/3 The assembly of eleven hundred ‘conscientious’ objectors at one spot, Princetown, on Dartmoor, where
they are known as ‘conchies’. 1917 Blackw. Mag. Nov. 698/1 So the Conchys, as the Bishop of Exeter calls them, live in a golden age.
1918 ‘IAN HAY’ Last Million vii. 93 What are yours [sc. sons] in? The Circumloosion Office, or the Conchie's Battalion? 1923 C. S.
LEWIS Let. 4 Feb. (1966) 85 He felt it his duty to be a ‘conchie’ if there was another war. 1928 GALSWORTHY Swan Song II. xi. 195
Conshies and Communists and ProfiteersI'd have had 'em all against a wall. 1936 M. PLOWMAN Faith called Pacifism 46 Of course I
knew that from one standpoint I was only another adjectival ‘Conchy’ letting his pals down. 1939 War Illustr. 14 Oct. 154/2 First
German ‘Conchie’. 1951 Landfall V. 21 The deal that is going on here is worse than the one the Conchies got. 1960 [see BEARDIE 2].